FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN INTRODUCTORY TECHNOLOGY IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL IN Nigeria(A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN CALABAR MUNICIPAL COUNCIL CROSS RIVER STATE)
It is disheartening to say that until recently, Introductory
Technology Education was not paid attention to by the introducers and the
acquirers. Many people had different notions that introductory technology
education is of no and therefore was not given recognition.
Virtually today, introductory Technology has attracted National
interest because it is the basis for the technological development of every
nation. It was on this background that the researcher unraveled the factors
militating against the performance of the students in Introductory Technology
in Junior Secondary School level in Nigeria, a case study of Calabar, Cross
River State. In the course of the research work, twenty one Introductory
Technology teachers were randomly sampled. the work was guided by research
questions, monitored and information gathered was analyzed.
Based on the research findings, it was discovered that absence of
training facilities, shortage of technical teachers, inadequate finding, vast
curriculum and poor recognition and remuneration as well as ineffective
guardian and counseling services are identified as the most endemic problems
militating against the performance of students in introductory Technology.
Thereafter, conclusion and recommendations were provided
for the problems
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background of the
1.2 Statement of the
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.8 Assumptions of the
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Historical Evolution of Technology and
Curriculum Innovation in
2.2 Report of
2.3 Policy planning and
2.4 Economic need for
Affiliation and Self Actualization
2.5 Summary of Literature
3.2 The Area of
3.5 Samples for the
3.7 Instrument for Data
3.8 Validity and Reliability
of the Instrument
3.9 Administration of
3.10 Data Analysis Techniques
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.2 Implication of the
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is the panacea for technological advancement of any
nation. The progress of any nation depends largely on the technological know -
how of that country. It was in realization of the fact that only technological
education can emancipate us from the western economic and technological
slavery, that the National Policy on Education (1977), revised (1981)
recommended expand technical institutions in the country. In 1979, all secondary
schools in the country were required to offer Introductory Technology along
side other subjects as one of the compulsion subjects at the Junior Secondary
It has been observed that the curriculum of our schools before the
introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system was too academic, theoretically oriented and
failed to address the needs and aspirations of the Nation. The system turned
out job seekers instead of job creators. The search for a functional
curriculum, which will address the needs and yearning of the nation, led to the
emergence of the 6- 3- 3-4 system in 1982. The curriculum contains among other
things pre-vocational subjects, which included introductory technology; Home
Economics and Business Education, which are compulsory at the Junior Secondary
Introductory technology as an integrated subject included-
woodwork, metal work, basic electricity /electronics, building construction,
technical drawing, plastic and rubber technology, and auto/ mechanical work.
Introductory technology lays the foundation for the acquisition of skills and
knowledge that are basic for technological development. The skills and
knowledge acquired at the this level will equip the students to be self reliant
if they are unable to study beyond the Junior Secondary School Level.
According to Nnadi (1988) “The new system would ensure that the
basic foundation is laid easily for the acquisition and utilization of
knowledge and skill on which the technological programme the country would
continue to depend”. It is intended that the programme would launch Nigeria
into the technological new world order.
It is sad to mention that resources are grossly inadequate for the
teaching of this important subject in our schools, especially schools in
Calabar, Cross River State where, in some places, buildings to house the
equipment / machines do not exist, while in some places there and building,
equipment and machines but no electricity and workshop exist there by making it
difficult for the equipment / machines to be installed.
It is not only the material resources that are in short supply but
also human resources and ideologies.
Adigin (1974 :137) indicated that “evidence, abounds to show that
the supply of introductory technology teachers is grossly inadequate both in
number and quality. Although the literature has shown that there is acute
shortage of resources for the teaching of the subject, in other places, it is
equally important to ascertain the extent of the factors militating against the
performance of students in introductory technology in Cross River State,
basically in Calabar Municipal Council Area of the state.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
After graduation of students studying Introductory Technology from
the Junior Secondary School Level of Education, they hardly exhibit simple
technological skills; hence they fail in most of the challenges they face while
in the labour market. With the lack of knowledge of tools and poor standard
workshop arrangement, lack of competent instructor, poor guidance and
counseling an vast curriculum, all result to some of the factors militating
against the performance of students in Introductory Technology in the Junior
Secondary School Level.
The questions addressed are as follows:
1. What effects does the curriculum has on the
performance of the students in Introductory Technology?
2. What effects does the available resources for
the teaching of introductory technology has on the students?
3. What effects does the motivation of technical
teachers have on the performance of students in Introductory Technology?
4. What effects does effective guidance and
counseling has on the performance of Introductory Technology Students?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to investigate the factors militating
against the performance of students in introductory technology at the Junior
secondary school level in Calabar Municipal Council Area of Cross River State
precisely, the study tend to:
i. Determine the factors responsible for the poor
performance of students in Introductory Technology.
ii. Assess the condition of services of technical
iii. Address the need for students’ guidance and
counseling in schools.
iv. Assess the effectiveness and efficiency of
introductory technology teachers.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The investigations of the study will enable education policy
markers in Government, administrators of schools, classroom teachers,
industries and the society at large to be aware of the problem of students poor
performance introductory technology in the Junior Secondary school level of
education, which if not tackled with care can hinder move towards the country’s
The outcome of the study will help technological teachers to
adjust and correct their lapses and improve on them efforts made so far for
Most importantly, students will benefit from the results of this
study immensely, in that they will seek proper counseling for purposeful
progress in their respective career choice in life.
Finally, the result of this study will be of immense benefit to
practicing technical education teachers to be.
1. Do teachers really cover the introductory
technology scheme of work?
2. What are the available resources for the
teaching / learning of introductory technology in Nigeria secondary schools?
3. What is the rate of utilization of the resources
in the teaching /learning of introductory technology for national development?
4. What efforts are being made by school
administrators and the Government to encourage technical teachers for effective
participation in Nigeria School?
5. What are the effects and relevance of guidance
and counseling in Nigeria secondary schools for technological development?
The work of this study was confirmed to Twelve(12) Secondary
Schools in Calabar Municipal Area of Cross River State.
Out of the twelve schools, three are private schools and Nine are
government owned secondary schools.
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
With genuine attestation to this study, it was assured that:
i. The respondents’ information gathered are
authentic and genuine.
ii. The teachers used in the study are ideal
iii. The data analysis computation is correct.
iv. The population sample used is large enough to be
a representative of the total population with respect to the limited time
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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