THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE BANKING SECTOR
(A CASE STUDY OF OCEANIC AND ZENITH BANKS)
1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The role played by information in aiding managerial work to support decision-making particularly in the banking sector cannot be ignored, considering the fact that banking operations rely substantially on management information systems. Although, most banks in the past operate manual system of information processing and storage, which is associated with problems of inaccuracy, poor storage facilities, cost and time constraints, had a negative effect on the delivery of services both to consumers of banking services and in – house management decision making. Thus, it made banking operations in Nigeria inconsistent with the dynamic global trend of banking.
An attempt to follow the present global trend of banking necessitated the employment of “on – line” banking operations by the new generation banks in the country. This process simply means deviation from the old fashion simple manual system to the much up graded computer based information system. This computer based information system use computer hardware and software, telecommunications networks, computer based data management techniques and other forms of information technology (I.T) to transform data into varieties of information.
This milestone achievement in management led both Zenith Bank and Oceanic Bank International which commenced operations in the 1990’s adopt information technology in their daily operations thereby ensuring maximum customer satisfaction. MIS gave them an edge over their competitors. Operating as real – time and on – line banks, these banks alongside other banks have revolutionized banking operations in Nigeria.
However, if information systems do not support the strategic objectives, business operations, or management needs of an organization, they can seriously damage its prospects for survival. Therefore, managers must balance the technological capabilities of information technology with its behavioural effects on people, and organizations to efficiently and effectively meet strategic objectives. Thus, the field of information systems has become a major functional area of business administration.
THE COMPONENTS AND ACTIVITIES OF MANAGEMENT SUPPORT SYSTEMS
· Managerial Reporting
· Decision Support
· Strategic Information
· Expert Advice
Other Networked Computers
Management Work Stations
NOTE: These are resources needed to provide management reporting, decision support, strategic information, and expert advice to managerial end users.
This conceptual overview emphasizes the main purpose of management information systems that support business operations and managerial decision – making.
Providing information and support for management decision – making by all levels of management (Top Executives – Middle managers – supervisors) is a complex task.
Information system (IS) for gathering, processing and disseminating information has been an integral part of every organization’s processes forever. However, the arrival of technologies, which were cable of helping carry out those processes, changing them, eliminating the need for some of them and enabling new processes to be developed, has made the management of information systems a subject needing specific attention.
Ensuring potential of Information technology is a harness in an increasingly uncertain and complex environment. This was traditionally a challenge for managers in major corporations, but the ever-improving economics and capabilities of information technology (IT) have meant that in every size of IT is now an item on the management agenda.
Information is a major resource and the proper handling will allow the organization to achieve an edge over their competitors: competitive advantage. Good information is information, which has value to the user. It is useful to the recipient, can be relied upon and could not continue service without computes and the information they make available. Value of he information leads to reducing unnecessary costs, adapting better than its rivals will be able to give a better service at a lower cost and so will make better long term profits.
For many firms, information technology has become a strategic focus. In that sense how sooner the computer systems are being planned and developed will be a critical factor. This will definitely influence the organisation’s survival or growth. However in the past information technology has been a lower profile activity. Bradmore (1996), has noted the demanded for management information continuous to grow as organisation’s become more complex in scale and scope, as the environment becomes more uncertain as the rate of change of key business-not least technology it self accelerates (Earl, 1989:14)
Competitive advantage involves providing better service through deeper knowledge of customer. The idea is that Banks have developed or learned information about their customers' needs and process can serve that customer better than their competitor can.
< >STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMRESEARCH QUESTIONSHow was the use of computer changed work at Zenith and Oceanic banks?What are the perceived benefits of management information systems?What are the perceived drawbacks of information technology on the management information system in the banks?What impact has management information system had on overall performance and organizational effectiveness of the banks?HO1: Management information system does not reduce running cost of most banks.
HO2: Universal banking is not facilitated by management information system
< >SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYOBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCHTo determine how information system help support managerial decision – making.To determine the impact of information system on the functioning and effectiveness of organizations.To discover the method of integrating information systems into the organization successfully. To determine whether computerization of banks information system has been able to meet up with management’s information needs in the decision – making.To determine whether information technology has been of any effect on the overall performance of the banks.To manage major challenges face by managers in adopting information technology.To recommend improvements in the further computerization of information systems within the banking industry.HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDDEFINITION OF TERMS The automatic operation and control of a work process by machines, that is without significant human intervention or operation. A device that has the ability to accept data internally, store and execute a program of instructions, perform mathematical, logical and manipulative operations on data and report the results.COMPUTER BASED INFORMATION SYSTEM: An information system that uses computer hardware and software to perform its information processing activities.COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: Developing products, services, processes or capabilities that give a company a superior business position relative to its competitors and other competitive forces.CLIENT/SERVER NETWORK: A computing environment where end – user workstations (clients) are connected to micro or mini Local Area Network (LAN) servers and possibly to mainframe super – servers.DATA BASE: A collecting of logically related records or files.DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS: These are interactive computer – based information systems that use decision models and specialized databases to assist the decision-making making processes of managerial end – users.END USER: Any one who uses an information system or the information it produces.EXECUTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEM: These are management support systems tailored to the strategic information needs of top and middle management.HARD WARE: Machines, media and physical equipment.INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: Hardware, software, telecommunications, database management and other information processing technologies used in computer based information systems. Is a data placed in a meaningful and useful context, for an end user.INFORMATION SYSTEM: A set of people, procedures and resources that collect, transforms and disseminate information in an organization.Is a process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling activities.MANAGERIAL REPORTING SYSTEM: This is the most common form of management support system, that provide managerial end users with information products that support much of the day – to – day decision.ON – LINE: Are devices under of central processing unit.REAL TIME PROCESSING: Data processing in which data is processed immediately rather than periodically.: Computer programs and procedures concerned with the operation of an information system.