Juvenile crime or delinquency conduct has today become a very complex phenomenon because of the complexity of society. This project examines the causes and effect of juvenile delinquency among primary pupils in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. It is a survey study which involves the use of questionnaire. The study makes use of both primary and secondary data and the data collected were presented in tables and expressed in percentages. The study discovered that poor parenting individual risk factors, mental health risk factor divorce, single parenting are causes of juvenile delinquency among primary school pupils in Oredo community. Consequently, the society loss huge finance in fighting crime, large number of human resources who would have form a strong labour force and wanton destruction of lives and properties. Therefore the research recommends that parents, teachers and government should employ thje early intervention approach, counseling and diversion approach in solving problem reflecting to juvenile delinquent in the society.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope and delimitation
Definition of terms
Instrumentation for data collection
Validity of instrument
Method of data collection
Data analysis, interpretation and findings
1.1 BACKGROUND FOR THE STUDY
The menace of vices such as poor academic output and poor performance at work in the society has been a source of concern to all the stake holders in education, that is government, teachers, parents, religious bodies, law enforcement agents and society at large. The society cannot exist without making mention of the school which is the major agent of change. It is based on this that the researcher wish to investigate the causes and effect of juvenile delinquency among primary school pupils with a particular reference to Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State Nigeria. Currently, Edo State is passing through social economic and political stress. This has virtually affected the whole system of government, commerce, industry, judiciary and of course the educational system. It is obvious that individuals (students inclusive) who are subjected to such stress are bound to exhibit low and negative amount, which in essence may reflect in their output quality. The various programme is aimed at addressing the problem of delinquency among children of primary school age and the various education programme aimed at addressing the problems of quality education which has been continually alleged to be failing.
Other aspect of education like the management of education environment and human material for an output quality has been neglected and it is the gap that this paper wants to fill. In Nigeria, primary education is a ladder to secondary and other higher education it is the education given to children from aged 6 to 11 plus. Since the rest of the education is built upon it, the primary level is the key to the success or failure of the whole system. Primary school serve as a major source of recruitment into secondary and other higher institutions of learning. Therefore, the national common entrance examination for entrance into secondary school and the joint matriculation examination (which is the qualifying examination for entrance into university, polytechnics, monotechnics and colleges of education) in Nigeria the school certificate examination have been the instrument and criteria by which performance of students are measured.
Nevertheless, the main goals and objectives of primary education in Nigeria as contained in the national policy on education are as follows;
1. Inculcate permanent literacy and numeracy, and ability to communicate effectively.
2. Lay a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking.
3. Give citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society.
4. Mould the character and develop sound attitude and morals in the child;
5. Develop in the child’s changing environment.
6. Give the child opportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable the child function effectively in the society within the limits of the child’s capacity.
7. Provide the child with basic tools for further educational advancement, including preparation for trade and crafts of the locality.
These goals will form the basis of primary education in all the state of the federation. However, our educational system (primary schools) have failed in the areas of character molding, morals behaviour and academic output various stories abound of students and young people vices of vandalization, robbery pick pocketing, tuggary, cultism etc furthermore, there is elders and for those in position of authority and for the work that the products of our school system exhibit. All theses negative vices point to the fact that the area or moral and socialization in the school system has failed. As reported by Obemeata (1995) numerous studies have shown that there has been a sharp decline in the academic performance of various levels of our educational system in Nigeria and the decline has been attributed largely to the poor condition in educational institutions in the country. Worse still there has been a upsurge in the number of both community and privately owned primary schools, accompanied with a gross lack of modern instructional technologies, poor physical classroom condition and lack of adequate training programme for teachers and the non-involvement and consultation of school counsellor for proper counselling.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Edo State government spent a lot of money to various enforcement agencies to check the activity of crime in the society. Agencies like (EFCC) Economic and Financial Crime Commission (ICPC) Independent Corrupt Practice Commission, (NDLEA) national drugs Law Enforcement Agency (NADAC) national Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control and the Police receive priority attention from government to ensure that citizens obey laws for the interest of peace and harmonious co-existence. Despite all the activities of the agency mentioned above and other measures put in place to fight crime, crime is still increasing on daily basis ranging from children to adult. In fact, crime is growing from worse to worst on daily basis. The scenario above calls for the following questions.
1. Do agencies that fight crime find any problem in carrying out their functions?
2. Does primary institutions in Edo State have agency that fight crime within the school?
3. Does the management staff of primary institutions consult counsellors when making decision for the institution?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Crime of the minor or juvenile delinquents today has become a very complex phenomenon because of the complexity of individual social or political organization, globalization and technological advancement especially in information technology. Research points to the crucial role rational management decision play in establishing and monitoring quality school without illegal activity of the minor (children). The objective of this is to examine the causes or risk factors that expose children to delinquent activity among pupils in primary institutions with particular reference to Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
In a more specific sense, the objective of the study are enumerated below;
1. To examine risk factors that prone students to engage in illegal activities in our school.
2. To examine the effect of juvenile delinquency among primary school students.
3. To ascertain if solutions are given to the problem of juvenile delinquency in schools.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following research question are to guide the research.
1. Does individual risk factor such as low intelligence prone individual to delinquent conduct?
2. Does lack of proper parental supervision prone children to illegal activity?
3. Do children with mental health risk factor such as (taken high drugs) contribute to juvenile delinquency?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will;
a. Enable parents/guardian and even government make education accessible to the young one’s at the foundation stage because a minor who does not receive proper education is moiré prone to become involved in delinquent conduct in the society.
b. Enable family(s) being the smallest functional unit of every society to know that lack of proper parental supervision conflict between and among parents (father and mother), physical and emotional neglect can influence a child negatively. The knowledge gained will help parents to culture, nurture and rear their children in accordance to societal norms.
c. Enable government to put machinery in place to guide the children against abuse of drugs that will make them to engage in illegal activities.
d. Enable government to employ counsellors in public primary institutions in Nigeria and Edo State in particular.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is primary institution and the behavioural characteristics of pupils in them with a particular reference to Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.