This study was designed to ascertain the challenges of improvising instructional materials by home economics teachers at the upper basic education level in Nigeria and as a result of identifying the strategies for enhancing improvisation. The study uyse survey research design based on two research questions. The sample was four hundred and thirty one home economics teachers in upper basic schools in Edo State of Nigeria. A structured questionnaire, designed on a 5-point scale was used to collect data findings indicated that some of the challenges faced by the teachers include how to improvise materials to arouse and sustain learners optimism and enthusiasm, access expert assistance and technical support stay informed of innovative developments have confidence to share ideas with other teachers, interpret research and statistical data. Diplomatically handle students resistance align improvised materials to carter for individual learners needs in overcrowded classrooms. Some strategies bothering on teachers self and group professional development, training and internet literacy were identified as capable of enhancing improvisation. These strategies if implemented might provide the teachers with opportunities to develop more improvisation insights for engaging young people in the highest quality learning activities.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Definition of terms
Administration of questionnaire
Method of data collection
Reliability and validity of instrument
Method of data analysis
Presentation and analysis of data
Responses made by school heads
Responses made by teachers
Summary of finding
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The universal basic education (UBE) programme of Nigeria is designed among other things to facilitate the standard of literacy, and improve societal development, the UBE is a nine year programame that cover six years of primary education and three years of junior secondary schools. The three years of junior secondary school is known as upper basic (Basic 7-9).
This upper basic level is aimed at preparing the youths for gainful employment or progression into the senior secondary level and subsequent admission into higher education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). Undoubtedly, these functions are very essential to the survival, enhancement and development of the Nigeria society. However, the extent to which the upper basic education level achieves the set aims is largely dependent on the various subjects in the curriculum and how they are taught in schools.
Home economics is one of the vocational subject taught at the upper basic level of the Nigerian education system as a compulsory part of the curriculum. It is taught as an integral core subject, which comprises food and nutrition, clothing and textile and home management. Home economics is an interdisciplinary field of study which helps families and individuals to understand and adopt to the effects of social economics, cultural, and technological changes. Archurst and Anyakoha (2004) described it as an applied science subject which is dependent on the integration of different academic disciplines such as the natural sciences i.e. biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and health science. The social sciences i.e. sociology, political science, economics, philosophy, psychology and art in solving problems of families and individuals. Home economics is a skill oriented field of study that is expected to equip learners with survival skills for self reliance/self employment and paid employment.
The importance of exposing learners to home economics curriculum for individual and societal development has been widely acknowledge for instance, Her Majesty Inspectorate of Education (HMIE, 2009) stated that the knowledge and skills gained with home economics make a considerable contribution to young peoples personal and social development as well as prepare them for the world of work in a wide range of areas retarded to aspects the subject. It provides learners with opportunities to develop knowledge and in both theoretical and practical aspects of livelihood (ministry of Education and Skills Development, 2012). The acquisition of such knowledge and skill has the capacity to argument, inspire productivity and further income generating life endeavors among people. A strong background in home economics curriculums is crucial for many careers and job opportunities in today’s increasingly technologically society.
To accommodate the various multidisciplinary area and skills in home economics, and position it to prepare Nigerian students for global participation, the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC, 2008) reviewed and reoriented is curriculum to have a broad scope that covers virtually all aspects of human daily living. According to the NERDEC (2008), the reviewed upper basic home economics curriculum is built on the 9-year basic education philosophy that seeks to provide quality learning experiences and pay attention to the all around development of the individuals.
Among the aims of the curriculum is to provide students with changes in a technological, socio-economic and multi-cultural society, contemporary societal issues have been integrated in the curriculum more practical lesson are introduced, and lessons are organized in modules with specifications on a variety of instructional material including instructional technologies for teaching. It is expected that if properly implemented the curriculum would cater for a diverse range of students abilities help the students to learn practical skills which would be useful to them in higher education or enable them get jobs in industries or other formal sectors of the economy.
Effective implementation of the curriculum would require the use of instructional materials. Opera (2002) sees instructional materials as information carriers designed specifically to fulfill objectives in teaching learning situation. Okeke (2005) is of the view that instructional materials are all the physical (man-made and material that are real and improvised) resources meant to be used by the facilitator in the process of teaching and learning. These materials may be used singly or in combination in some cases, they could be used in an information and formal way.
This shows that teachers vary the methods of utilizing instructional materials during instruction to effect changes in the behaviour of the learners. Certainly the appropriate use of instructional materials goes a long way in improving teaching and learning, arousing interest and enhancing student’s affective responses. Furthermore, Okoro (2005) adds that home economics as an integral part of the school curriculum. Unlike any other subject, it is primarily concerned with helping the individual live a useful and satisfying life as well as improvement of family living which will in turn lead to the improvement of towns and villages as well as the nation. As a profession, home economics education trains an individual to be self-reliant it is a job creator in the family society and nation.
Okoro and Ossais views tends to recognize the relevance of home economics not only to the individual but also to the family, community and the nation at large. Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) advocates for the availability and use of various kinds of instructional materials for effective instruction as well as the production of self reliant individual. One of the subjects that requires enough instructional materials for its impartation as well enable a person to be self reliant, self-employed as well as join vocational centres is home economics.
Individual and the society have sees education as the key to success in life. In all human societies, past and present, education has been instrumental to impacting positively to the survival of individuals and the society.
The capacity of development in any country can be measured through a properly planned and well directed education. Thus, education is a behaviour characteristics, it impact skills, attitudes, belief to reason, knowledge and any other form which enable one to adjust and interact effectively with other individuals. Through the acquisition of skills it enable an individual and the group to proceed into the actualization of the individuals destiny.
Indeed, instructional materials provides concepts and attitudes to the students which improved his skills, ability to reason and makes him/her informed about what is going on in the global village. Education has helped to being the entire world into an entry through the information and knowledge education has helps us to achieve. Education has helped to reduce the problem of language barrier through instructions and teaching by our teacher’s individual has acquired different languages outside the traditional language. This led to individual to associate properly with people from different countries. It has also help one to adjust from traditional behaviour to a more modest behaviour that makes the individual to be accommodated any part of the world he or she visits. Education has been means to an end, that a country is developed is as a result of instructional aid created by education. It serves as catalyst to governmental principles, policies and laws. With the acquisition of knowledge and society structured their means of livelihood.
Instructional materials is an aid to teaching and learning. It helps to raise learning from verbalization to practical aspect of teaching and learning. Instructional materials makes teaching and learning interesting easy and using it makes learning more effective. In another development, the use of instructional materials makes different continents to shape their rules and regulation to accommodate the other this they do by providing them with the socio-cultural and political differences and how to adjust the traditional socio-cultural and political ways and accommodate another. As instructional materials makes students understand more easily when the teacher makes use of working model. It makes the teacher task easier and more effective.
Olardi (1990) has highlighted the impact of instructional materials that teachers use to improve the students form understanding and perception of the subject as an enhanced acids. It brings clarity and creates recognition that allows them to have a realistic hand and a total knowledge of the subject. It enhanced learning, improve the competence of learners and makes learning more meaningful to students. Teaching and learning through the use of instructional materials facilitates stimulates and aids students to take active interest in any topic introduced by the teacher. Instructional materials has emotional impact on the students of Owan West Local Government Area and affects their attitude towards what is presented as topic to study by the teacher. it provides both the teacher and students with relevance and meaningful source of information.
Kay (2008) instructional materials stimulate t he students desire to learn. It assist learning process by making assimilation and memorization to materials easy. Also it helps to include greater acquisition and as well as objectives which may be inaccessible to many students. Finally, an instructional materials makes learning available to a wider audience, control the pace of learning promote better understanding and help to overcome physical difficulties in presenting the students content.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The use of instructional materials has lots of general benefits that guides a greater impact in teaching and learning process. The teachers level of resourcefulness, creativity and imagination is credited to the achievement of quality education, these are expressed in how well the teacher is able to perceive create and use the relevant information that can enhance and promote effective teaching and learning activities.
In Owan West Local Government Area there is a fair use of instructional materials which makes teaching and learning activities more theoretical abstract and ineffective the issue of whether instructional materials provides the necessary knowledge is widely recognized in the central role of assimilation and retention of information it makes available to a wider audience.
Instructional materials is a major determining variables that control the pace of learning. It has to do with the creation of an environment in which students can develop their full potential and lead productive lives. In accordance with the demands of their interest and needs either as individual or as group within the society.
The Nigerian government, at all levels has over the years placed enormous emphasis on instructional materials is shaping efforts and strategies aimed at improving students standard of learning in the country but both theoretical and empirical literature failed to capture the real factors as to why the standard of education in country still remain very low. Okereke (2009) observes that many schools in that state cannot boast of instructional materials. He contends that every government should contend with the issue of making education her priority to help improve our standard of learning by providing the required instructional materials to schools.
Obasai (2010) holds the view that government should provide funds to principals who monitors the teaching staff to help principal provide the instructional materials needed by their students at all time. To get to the core of this inquiry, there are central questions which must serve as guides in determining the direction and focus of our research with this view the study is aimed at addressing the following questions;
1. How does the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning influence cognitive performance of secondary school students?
2. How does the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning influence effective performance of secondary school students?
3. How does the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning influence psychomotor performance of secondary school students?
4. How does the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning influence teachers classroom performance?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Generally, the purpose of this study is to examine the impact of instructional materials in teaching secondary school students in Owan West Local Government Area of Edo State specifically this study tries to find out the following:
1. Impact of instructional materials on students cognitive performance in schools.
2. Impact of instructional materials on students affective performance in schools.
3. Impact of instructional materials on students psychomotor performance in schools.
4. Impact of instructional materials on the teachers classroom performance.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will have much significance on the following people;
First and foremost, the findings of the study will be of much significance to students, researchers and teachers in secondary schools. This is so because the report of the study will serve as a good reference document to this group of learners where conducting a research on the impact of instructional materials on teaching.
Again the study has much significance on the government in Nigeria. This is so because, it will serve as a source of information to the government that the non-provision of instructional materials to teaching provides has is for the falling standard of learning in the country.
Furthermore, the study will be significant to parents, this is so because when conducting parents teachers meeting, such an issue might be raised and this will serve as a good reference document in providing solution.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focused on the impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning in secondary schools in Owan Local Government Area of Edo State.