1.1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and
consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient
Greek (oikonomia, "management of a household, administration")
(oikos, "house") (nomos, "custom" or "law"),
hence "rules of the house(hold)". Political economy was the earlier
name for the subject, but economists in the late 19th century suggested
"economics" as a shorter term for "economic science" that
also avoided a narrow political-interest connotation and as similar in form to
"mathematics", "ethics", and so forth.
A focus of the subject is how economic agents behave or interact and how
economies work. Consistent with this, a primary textbook distinction is between
microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics examines the behavior of
basic elements in the economy, including individual agents (such as households
and firms or as buyers and sellers) and markets, and their interactions.
Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy and issues affecting it, including
unemployment, inflation, economic growth, and monetary and fiscal policy.
Other broad distinctions include those between positive economics (describing
"what is") and normative economics (advocating "what ought to
be"); between economic theory and applied economics; between rational and
behavioral economics; and between mainstream economics (more
"orthodox" and dealing with the
"rationality-individualism-equilibrium nexus") and heterodox economics
(more "radical" and dealing with the
"institutions-history-social structure nexus").
Economic analysis may be applied throughout society, as in business, finance,
health care, and government, but also to such diverse subjects as
crime,[education, the family, law, politics, religion social institutions, war,
and science. At the turn of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics
in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
An attitude may be defined as a
predisposition to respond in a favourable or unfavourable manner with respect
to a given attitude object (Oskamp and Schultz 2005). The focus of this project
is on school studentsâ€™ attitudes towards Economics subjects taught in
secondary classrooms. The term â€˜subjectsâ€™ refers to both theory and
laboratory classes in secondary school. Thus, the scope of the present study
was limited to Economics as experienced by students in secondarys chool rather
than out-of-school experiences obtained from external sources such as the
media, museums, field trips and friends. Attitude towards Economics or science
denotes interests or feelings towards studying Economics or science. It is the
studentsâ€™ disposition towards like or â€˜dislikeâ€™ science while attitude in
science means scientific approach assumed by an individual for solving
problems, assessing ideas and making decisions. Student beliefs and attitudes
have the potential to either facilitate or inhibit learning (Yara, 2009).Many
factors could contribute to studentâ€™s attitude toward studying science
(Economics). Several studies (including Wilson 1983; Soyibo, 1985;Berg 2005;
Adesoji, 2008) report that studentsâ€™ positive attitudes to science correlate
highly with their that, in general, the attitude of Nigeria students towards
the basic sciences tend to decrease in the order, Biology, Economics, Physics
and Mathematics. Defiana (1995) found that using integrated science environment
activities improved high school student attitude toward and awareness about the
environment. Armstrong and Impara (1991) in their studies determined that fifth
and seventh â€“ grade students using nature score as a curriculum supplement
developed more positive attitudes than those who did not. Abimbola (1983)
reported that students exposed to a programmed instruction recorded higher and
more favourable attitude towards mathematics. Ayelaagbe (1998) also reported a
more positive attitude of studies after exposing them to self learning
strategy. Similar results were obtained by Udousoro (2000) after using computer
and text assisted programmed instruction and Popoola (2002) after exposing
students to a self learning device. Popoola(2008) also reported that students
attitudes and interests to sciences, especially Agricultural science correlate
highly with their science achievement. Halladyna and Shanghnessy (1982) and
Adesoji (2008) have concluded that a number of factors have been identified as
related to studentsâ€™ attitude to science (Economics). Such factors include;
teaching methods, teacher attitude, influence of parents, gender, age,
cognitive styles of pupils, career interest, social view of science and
Scientifics, social implicating of science (Economics)and achievement. The
studies thus reviewed suggest that there is a relationship between attitude and
methods of instruction and also between attitude and achievement;and that it is
possible to predict achievement from attitude scores. What isneeded to
complement the results of such studies however is the nature of relationship
between studentsâ€™ attitude and factors related to teaching and learning of
Economics. Results of these types of study are likely to broaden our knowledge
as how we can influence studentsâ€™ attitude positively towards Economics as a
subject in Akure, Nigeria.
1.2PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to investigate the attitudes of students in Akure
South Local Government Area of Ondo State toward studying of Economics as a
subject. The study is also designed to make various recommendations for
teachers and other stakeholders on how to arouse or improve students attitudes
in the subject.
1.3STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Despite the greater number of Economics graduates produced by our tertiary
institutions; every year there are numbers of secondary schools where Economics
teachers are not competent in the teaching of the subject. Also, the attitude
of the students in secondary schools towards Economics as a profession is not
encouraging. This makes the teaching of Economics ineffective and inefficient
even where there are competent teachers to teach. It is on this premise, that
this study is designed to investigate the attitude of students to teaching and
learning of Economics in secondary schools.
In order to investigate the attitude of students to Economics, the following
questions were raised:
students have positive attitudes towards Economics?
Do their negative attitudes a result of the attitude of
their teachers towards the subject?
Do their attitudes towards problem solving result of
unavailability of textbook and other instructional materials?
Should Economics be made compulsory for all science students
in secondary schools?
1.5SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study was limited to secondary schools in Akure South LocalGovernment of
Ondo State only. Based on the time frame and financial constraints in covering
all the secondary schools in the Local Government, the study was also limited
to the students in Senior Secondary Schools (SS Class)
The names of the schools are:
Grammar School, Akure.
C.A.C.Grammar School, Akure.
Oyemekun High School, Akure.
St.Peterâ€™sUnity High School, Akure.
Fiwasiaye Girls Grammar School, Akure.
1.6SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is aimed at looking at the studentsâ€™ attitudes towards Economics in
some selected secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo
State. The results of the study is hoped to assist Economics teachers to
develop new learning experience for the students and reorganize these learning
experience in some ways enough to arouse the interest of the students. It would
be of good assistance to teachers to create a habit were they would improve on
the obsolete teaching methods, use adequate, modern and relevant instructional
materials and textbooks at their disposed to the fullest. This study may also
assist the students to improve their attitude towards the study of the subject.
Finally, the government and parents would benefit from the study of their roles
as these would be highlighted at the recommendation column.1.7Assumption of the
Study Based on the study, the following assumptions were made. Secondary school
students constitute a valid source of data needed in the study. Also, that the
respondents will give valid and unbiased responses to the questionnaire items
and that the samples drawn will be representatives of the population
1.8DEFINITION OF TERMS
Economics:- This is a science subject taught in the Senior Secondary Schools.
Learning:- This is the process of acquiring knowledge in Economics among Senior
Secondary School Students.
Attitude:- This refers to studentsâ€™ positive mind to the study of Economics.
Teaching:- Transmission of the knowledge of Economics to Senior Secondary
School Students. Instruction
Materials:- These are aids used in teaching and learning of Economics in Senior
TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPLY
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